STV0042 STV0056 AN838/1095 STV0042/STV0056 STV42/56 AN838-01 AN838-02 AN838-03 - Datasheet Archive
STV0042 / STV0056 By Jean-Yves COUET SUMMARY Page 1 INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
APPLICATION NOTE STV0042 STV0042 / STV0056 STV0056 By Jean-Yves COUET SUMMARY Page 1 INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 GENERAL BLOCK DIAGRAMS (Differences between STV0042 STV0042 and STV0056 STV0056) . . . . . 1 3 APPLICATION NOTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.1 VIDEO PROCESSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.4 3.5 FM DEMODULATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hardware Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Software Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AUDIO PROCESSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Audio Noise Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Audio De-emphasis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER FUNCTIONS, MISCELLANEOUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PCB LAYOUT RECOMMANDATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7 12 18 18 23 25 26 4 APPLICATION OPTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 SIMPLIFIED VIDEO DE-EMPHASIS CHANNEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J17 DE-EMPHASIS GENERATION WITH STV0042 STV0042 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SIMPLIFIED AUDIO NOISE REDUCTION OR NO NOISE REDUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . AUDIO MONO APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 28 29 29 5 TWIN TUNER APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 6 SATELLITE RECEIVER BUILT IN VCR OR TV SETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 7 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS DIAGRAMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 STV0056 STV0056 : 3 SCARTS PAL/EUROPE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STV0042 STV0042 : PAL/NTSC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STV0042 STV0042 : PAL M / BRAZIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STV0042 STV0042 : AUDIO MONO APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 32 33 34 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 35 35 35 35 36 36 8.7 POTENTIAL PROBLEMS AND SUGGESTED SOLUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SOUND CRAKLING AND DISTORTED SIBILANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AUDIO LEVEL WITH 50µs DE-EMPHASIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NOISY VIDEO SIGNAL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22kHz TONE CROSSTALK ON VIDEEM1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AUDIO S/N, INFLUENCE OF THE VIDEO PATTERN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STV0042 STV0042 : AUDIO LEVEL MODULATION WHEN EVALUATING WITH SIGNAL GENERATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIDEO OUTPUT, LIMITED SLEW-RATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 ANNEXE : PLL DEMODULATOR THEORETICAL ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 AN838/1095 AN838/1095 36 36 1/37 STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 1 - INTRODUCTION The purpose of this application note is to provide the user with the most important informations relevant to the hardware and software environment of the STV0042 STV0042 and the STV0056 STV0056 circuits. In this introduction part, we would like to mention that the STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 circuits features very specific FM demodulators, consequently we would advice to pay a specific attention to the relevant chapters. Conventions In this note, when the explanations are commun to both STV0042 STV0042 and STV0056 STV0056 circuits : the circuits are called STV42/56 STV42/56 and when pin numbers are given, they are relevant to the STV0056 STV0056 (ex : Pin 15 means Pin 15 of STV0056 STV0056 (corresponding to Pin 12 of STV0042 STV0042). When the explanations are relevant to only one circuit, the entire circuit reference is mentionned (ex : STV0042 STV0042). When external components reference are given in this note, they are relevant to the STV0056 STV0056 application circuit (page 31). When speaking about software : - R : stands for register - ex : R06 Register 06 - B : stands for bit - ex : R06 B1 Register 06 Bit1 Other conventions : - R05 B0-5 Register 05 from Bit 0 to Bit 5 - R06 B2 B4 Register 05 Bit 2 and Bit 4 - R05 B0-5 = 35 ; it means no attention is paid to Bit 6 and Bit 7. 35 is the hexadecimal value given by the 5 first bits. 2 - GENERAL BLOCK DIAGRAMS (differences between STV0042 STV0042 and STV0056 STV0056) The general block diagram of the STV0042 STV0042 and STV0056 STV0056 circuits are given in Figure 1 and 2 respectively. Figure 1 : STV0042 STV0042 General Block Diagram B-BAND 2 Video Processing 2 From VCR/Decoder From Tuner 2 1 FM Demodulation 2 Channels Noise Reduction + Deemphasis To TV, VCR/Decoder Audio Matrix + Volume 2 I2C Bus Interface 22kHz to LNB STV0042 STV0042 2/37 4x2 Video Matrix Active in Stand-by AN838-01 AN838-01.EPS From Tuner STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 2 - GENERAL BLOCK DIAGRAMS (differences between STV0042 STV0042 and STV0056 STV0056) (continued) Figure 2 : STV0056 STV0056 General Block Diagram B-BAND 2 Video Processing 4 From TV, VCR/Decoder From Tuner 6x3 Video Matrix 3 2 FM Demodulation 2 Channels Noise Reduction + Deemphasis To TV, VCR/Decoder Audio Matrix + Volume 3 I2C Bus Interface 22kHz to LNB Active in Stand-by STV0056 STV0056 Both circuits contain the following main functions : Video : - a baseband video processing block, - a video switching matrix, Audio : - 2 independant FM demodulators, - an audio processing part containing (audio deemphasis, noise reduction), - an audio switching matrix with a volume control output, Others : - an I2C bus decoder, - a 22kHz tone generator for LNB control. When the circuit is in stand-by (R4 B3 = high), all the functions are turned-off except for the I2C bus interface and the audio and video matrix. With such a configuration, it is still possible to allow signals to go through the satellite receiver while having a lower power consumption. Differences between STV0042 STV0042 and STV0056 STV0056 Video Audio Others Clamped Video Inputs Clamped Video Outputs Audio De-emphasis Audio Noise Reduction Auxillary Inputs Auxillary Outputs I2C Addresses Digital I/O 22kHz Tone Generator STV0042 STV0042 2 2 50/75µs L+R 1 1 06 No Pin 13 STV0056 STV0056 4 3 50/75µs and J17 Panda 2 2 06 or 46 1 Pin 16 or/and Pin 29 Comments See Note 1 See Note 2 See Note 3 Notes : 1. One of STV0056 STV0056 video output feature a DC level output (black level adjust) 2. With the STV0042 STV0042 the input signal which is used to control the noise reduction circuit is (L + R). With the STV0056 STV0056, there are 2 independants noise reduction circuits, one for left, one for right. 3. With the STV0056 STV0056, the I2C bus address can be selected by connecting the HA pin either to VDD or to GND. 3/37 AN838-02 AN838-02.EPS From Tuner STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 3 - APPLICATION NOTES 3.1 - Video Processing Figure 3 and Figure 4 respectively give the architecture of the video processing part of the STV0042 STV0042 and STV0056 STV0056 circuits. Figure 3 : STV0042 STV0042 Video Processing Block Diagram LPF NTSC PAL UNCL DEEM VIDEEM1 15 12 VIDEEM2/22kHz 13 22kHz TONE ¸ 2 B-BAND IN 17 Deemphasized ±1 G Baseband Normal CLAMP 8 S2 VID RTN 10 CLAMP VCR / Decoder Return +6dB +6dB STV0042 STV0042 6 5 S2 VID OUT S1 VID OUT To Decoder or VCR To TV AN838-03 AN838-03.EPS CLAMP IN Figure 4 : STV0056 STV0056 Video Processing Block Diagram LPF NTSC PAL VIDEEM2/22kHz 16 UNCL DEEM VIDEEM1 18 15 I/O/22kHz 29 22kHz TONE ¸ 2 B-BAND IN 20 G Deemphasized ±1 Baseband CLAMP IN 13 CLAMP S3 VID RTN 5 CLAMP S2 VID RTN 11 CLAMP S1 VID RTN 4 CLAMP Normal Decoder Return VCR Return TV Return +6dB +6dB +6dB BLACK LEVEL ADJUST 8 To Decoder S1 VID OUT 7 S3 VID OUT 9 S2 VID OUT To VCR To TV Basically those block diagrams contain two mains parts : the baseband video processing an a switching matrix. 4/37 AN838-04 AN838-04.EPS STV0056 STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 3 - APPLICATION NOTES (continued) 3.1.1 - Breaking down the Baseband Video Processing Function 22.214.171.124 - Input Stage This wide band input stage has a programmable gain (R1 B0-5). The gain value is selected to get a 1VPP signal at the output (loaded with 75). Taking into account all the different gains of the video channel (externbal and internal buffers, low pass filters), it corresponds to a 0.4VPP signal at the input of the de-emphasis amplifier (synchro top to peak white (not taking into account the pre-emphasis spikes). GInput Stage = 0.4 VPP VT-W VT-W : the synchro top to peak white amplitude of the signal delivered by the tuner. 126.96.36.199 - Video Polarity Inverter To comply with both positive video (Ku bands) and negative video (C-band) ; a programmable inverter is implemented in the STV42/56 STV42/56 to recover good video phase. 188.8.131.52 - Video De-emphasis + External Low Pass Filter The video de-emphasis function is realized with a non-inverting amplifier (see Figure 5). Dimensionning the External Components The required video de-emphasis law is : f f2 F=K f 1+ f1 1+ f : frequency (1) in 625 lines systems : f2 = 1.56MHz, f1 = 312kHz in 525 lines systems : f2 = 0.875MHz, f1 =187kHz The AC gain of the structure can be calculated as follow : GAC = 1 + z2 R9 =1+ z1 R (R9 C12 p + 1) R9 f2 =1+ f1 R (4) 1 (5) 2 R9 C12 Additionnaly the DC output voltage of the de-emphasis amplifier is choosen in the range of 3.5 to 4.0V. This range offers two advantages : - limits the current consumption when hybrid type of low pass filters are choosen, as suggested in our typical application diagrams (TDK SEL 5618 filter) VOUT DC IOUT DC = R15 + R16 - When the low pass filter is built with discrete components (L and C), there is generally the need for a group delay compensation circuit (see Figure 5) which implements a transistor Q. In such a case, to offer the widest swing, the voltage at the emitter VE should be : VDD VE 3V, VE (VOUT DC - 0.7V) 4 The DC output voltage of the de-emphasis amplifier is : R9 VOUT DC = VIN DC 1 + 3.7V (6) R10 with VIN DC = 2.45V Using relations (4), (5), (6), it is possible to determine all the component values. - 625 lines systems : (VIDEEM1 Pin) R9 = 5.1k (choosen value) C12 = 100pF, R10 = 10k, R11 = 1.5k, C13 10µF - 525 lines systems (see the PAL/NTSC typical application diagram, Pin VIDEEM2) R14 = 5.6k (choosen value) C14 = 100pF, R13 = 10k, R12 = 1.5k, C15 10µF and f1 = (2) p : Laplace operator (p : j2f in the frequency field) R : R11//R10 R11//R10 |1/C2p| 28µA, Actual I2 Min. = 40µA (specification of STV42/56 STV42/56) Remarks : - It is important not to use a too small C11 value. A low C11 value would induce a degradation of the TILT parameter (parasitic slope on the clamped video). Additionnaly, in case of built-in Videocrypt receiver, a parasitic slope would produce a voltage offset at the "cut and rotate" point. - For a good operation, the DC impedance of point A (see Figure 6) must be as low as possible. (1) C11 STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 3 - APPLICATION NOTES (continued) Figure 6 : Video Input Clamp Function o Vide Filtered Unclamped Video D I2 Ts A AN838-06 AN838-06.EPS T C11 I1 2.7V 184.108.40.206 - Switching Matrix This switching matrix is simply an array of CMOS switches which is driven by registers. All configurations are possible. Any output can be connected to any input. An input can be connected to several outputs. 220.127.116.11 - Output Stages Each video output has a 6dB output gain, and the internal final stage is a emitter follower structure pulled down with a 1.3mA current source. The output voltage amplitude is 2VPP, and the synchro bottom level is clamped at 1.3V typically. In the application, an external current amplifier (75 driver) is required. Remarks : - The S3VIDOUT of the STV0056 STV0056 features a black level adjust (corresponding to a DC level adjust). This function may be used to more simply interface with built-in Videocrypt decoder. - When the high 2 low power mode is selected, the output impedance becomes high ( 23k typ.), and the DC output levels drops to low values (< 0.2V) consequently the external 75 driver is also turned (power saving). 3.2 - FM Demodulation 3.2.1 - Hardware Description This chapter is relevant to : - the input filter, - a study of the FM demodulator which is integrated in the STV42/56 STV42/56 circuits (including the external components needed at Pins DET L/R, AMPLOCK L/R, CPUMP L/R, AGC L/R). 18.104.22.168 - Input Filter (C25, R18, R17, L4, C24, C23) The FM demodulator integrated in the STV42/56 STV42/56 circuit have a good rejection of the video signal (due to the selective AGC stage see paragraph 22.214.171.124). However, to get a good audio signal to noise ratio, it is preferable to attenuate the video signal spec- I CH = I 2 - I 1 during Ts during T - Ts I CH = - I 1 trum with an input filter. The filter proposed in the typical application (see Figure 7) contains a high pass cell (C25, R18, fC 1.5MHz) and a chroma trap (R17, L4, C24). C23 is required for capacitive coupling with the FM IN Pin (C23 value is not critical). The center frequency of the chroma trap is about 4.4MHz for PAL/SECAM application and 3.58MHz in case of NTSC application (Remark : In case of PAL/NTSC application, a double trap may be required.) It is recommanded to directly connect the input filter to the tuner baseband output, because at this stage the video signal is still emphazed (giving a natural 14dB attenuation of the lower part of the video spectrum where most of the energy is concentrated. 126.96.36.199 - FM Demodulators The block diagram of the FM demodulation part is given in Figure 8. This block diagram contains 2 independants FM demodulators able to process all types of mono and stereo sound, including : - mono signals with deviation from ± 30kHz up to ± 400kHz (remark the spec mentions : ± 19.5kHz to ± 592kHz, in order to cover all possible dispersions). - Stereo pair featuring a frequency spacing different from 180kHz (between left and right sub-carriers). Each FM demodulator section contains 2 parts : - an automatically gain controlled input stage - a PLL demodulator The only common point to both FM demodulators is the frequency synthesis circuit : SYNTHESIZER. The structure of the FM demodulators which is different from conventional solutions have been selected for the two following reasons : - no need for costly selective filters (LC or ceramic), - to have a variable bandwidth (to accomodate all type of deviations). 7/37 STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 3 - APPLICATION NOTES (continued) Figure 7 : FM Demodulation, Video Signal Rejection Filter C25 TUNER R18 R17 C23 To FM IN AN838-07 AN838-07.EPS / AN838-07 AN838-07.TIF L4 C24 Figure 8 : FM Demodulation Block Diagram SW1 FM IN AGC LEVEL DETECTOR 1 Phase Detect DET R AUDIO R FM dev. Select. Bias A AGC R LEVEL DETECTOR 2 CPUMP R VREF Amp. Detect AMPLK R 90 VCO 0 SD WATCHDOG VREF SW2 R SW5 Reg8 b4 SYNTHESIZER L RIGHT DEMODULATOR AUDIO L LEFT DEMODULATOR SW3 AGC LEVEL DETECTOR 1 SW4 Phase Detect DET L FM dev. Select. Bias A AGC L LEVEL DETECTOR 2 CPUMP L VREF Amp. Detect AMPLK L 90 VCO 0 SD Reg8 b0 AGC STAGE 8/37 PLL DEMODULATOR STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 AN838-08 AN838-08.EPS WATCHDOG VREF STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 3 - APPLICATION NOTES (continued) - In the satellite receiver applications it is asked to have a required audio level for a full deviation signal (ex : 1VRMS on the scart output at full deviation). Refering to relation (2), it means that the K KO products must remain constant for all deviations. Consequently to compensate the dispersion of the VCO slope KO, the STV42/56 STV42/56 FM deviation selection table offers many steps, so that there is always a selection which guarantees : K KO = constant ± small dispersion The method to select the optimum K factor is described in Section 188.8.131.52 - Additionnally, in relation (1), it can be noticed that a constant (K KO) product gives a more stable lock range. a) Principle of the FM Demodulators To properly operate the FM demodulators require to go through different operating modes before to produce the demodulated signal. The required sequence is described in the software part (Section 184.108.40.206). Because there is no selective filter (LC or ceramic) which sets the operating frequency (ex : 10.7MHz), the demodulation of the STV42/56 STV42/56 circuit directly o p er at es a t t h e su bc ar ri e r f re qu en cy (ex : fVCO = 7.02MHz when demodulating the 7.02MHz subcarrier). This first point explains why each VCO can be driven by the Synthesizer. - SW2 closed and SW5 to R to drive the right VCO - SW4 closed and SW5 to L to drive the left VCO During the Demodulation : When the FM demodulator is in demodulation, it operates like any PLL demodulator and its block diagram can be simplified (as Figure 9). Figure 9 Loop Filter VIN Vo (to audio processor) F(p) (from AGC stage) KD AN838-09 AN838-09.EPS Phase Detector VCO Ko K F(p) : the transfert function of the external loop filter which is connected at DET Pin. KD : the phase detector gain (in V/radians). KO : slope of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) in (radians/volts or Hz/volts). K : is a programmable coefficient related to the register 05 bits 0 to 5. In Annex 1 a more detailed study of this PLL structure is provided. Out of this detailed study the key results are : KO : 460kHz/V 2.89 106 radians/V (typ.) R33 (for left channel) (0) KD DETH R36 DETH is a parameter given in the specification. Lock range = L = KO K KD VO PP 1 = DC gain = (deviation PP K KO ) (1) (2) Remarks about those relations : - The relations (1) shows that a programmable K coefficient corresponds to a programmable bandwidth (FM deviation selection, table in Page 26 of the specification dated June 1995). b) Breaking Down the PLL Demodulator Section (explanation for left channel and refered to Fig. 8) - Phase Detector : This part converts the phase difference between the wanted subcarrier and the VCO signal (with 90° phase log) into a current IPD. In the calculation KD is given in Volt per Radians, because a current to voltage conversion is done by the resistor R33 connected between Pin DET and VREF. - The Loop Filter : It is made of external components connected between DET Pin and VREF. - The VCO : The voltage controlled oscillator typically has a 460kHz/volt slope. It is driven by the SYNTHESIZER during the frequency synthesis sequence and by the demodulated signal during the demodulation. The VCO part features a first output with 90° phase lag compared with the subcarrier, this output is used for phase detection ; the second output is in phase with the subcarrier and is used for synchronous amplitude detection (see AGC stage). - The Watchdog : It is used to measure the VCO frequency. This function is used to check if the VCO frequency has reached the wanted subcarrier frequency during the frequency synthesis. This operation is also usefull to monitor the VCO frequency during demodulation (preventing it from shifting away when operating under abnormal conditions). The watchdog is a 1/1000 divider (clocked by a 10kHz reference frequency) consequently its averages the VCO frequency over a 100ms period (equivalent to 10Hz) ; this long period makes the results independant from the audio modulating signal. 9/37 STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 3 - APPLICATION NOTES (continued) - FM Deviation Selection : This part is a programmable attenuator driven by R5 B0-5. - SW3-SW4-SW5 : Those switches are used to drive the VCO either by the Synthesizer or by the wanted subcarrier. During the synthesis SW4 is closed, SW5 is set to L, and SW3 is connected to bias (in order not to have parasitic drives coming from the phase detector). Those switches are driven by the R06 B2 B4 (left), R06 B2 B5 (right). - Amplifier A and CPUMP Pin : During the demodulation, the DC voltage corresponding to the VCO center frequency is memorized in a large capacitor (about 10µF) connected at CPUMP Pins. To prevent the VCO from slow frequency shifts which could be generated by current leakages, the PLL demodulator has a DC loop which is closed by a voltage to current amplifier A. The output current capability of this amplifier is low (max. ± 2µA) in order not to disturb the AC operation of the amplifier. c) Why an AGC Input Stage When no selective filter (LC or ceramic) is used, the sum of all the subcarriers is input in the phase detector of the PLL demodulator. Consequently a linear type of phase detector is necessary (to avoid intermodulations) ; but this type of phase detector features a gain which is proportionnal to the amplitude (As) of the subcarrier to be demodulated. KD = As (3) Refering to the relation (1), the lock range of the PLL demodulator : L = KO K KD = KO K As Consequently in order to have a stable lock range, it is important to maintain a constant amplitude of the wanted subcarrier ; then an automatically gain controlled stage is required. d) Breaking Down the AGC Stage - The AGC amplifier is controlled by two level detectors, and offers a 40dB gain range. - The first control loop built with the AGC stage and the level detector 1, is always active (during the synthesis and the demodulation). This loop guarantees that the amplitude (As) of the wanted subcarrier does not take too small or too high 10/37 values. In doing so, the first capture is easier when starting to demodulate. - The second loop made of : the amplitude detector, level detector 2 and the AGC stage, is active only during demodulation (SW3 connected to AGC amplifier). When operating, thanks to the higher current capability of level detector 2, the second loop controls the AGC amplifier. After the PLL capture, the amplitude detector receives all the subcarriers on one input and the VCO signal at the other input. Due to the PLL the VCO signal is synchronous with the wanted subcarrier ; consequently the average DC signal which can be measured at AMPLOCK Pin only depends on the amplitude of the wanted subcarrier (regardless the amplitude and the number of the other subcarriers). Finally with this second loop the amplitude of the wanted subcarrier is constant at the input of the phase detector. An external RD filter is used on the AMPLOCK Pin to reject all the AC components of the amplitude detector output signal. - SD comparator : This Subcarrier Detector comparator switches to high when the AMPLOCK voltage exceeds a fixed threshold. In doing so it detects wether a subcarrier is present at the wanted frequency. e) Synthesizer This function is shared between both FM demodulators. For this reason, when demodulating a stereo pair, two successive frequency synthesis sequences are required. The synthesizer used a conventional PLL solution, in which the VCO signal frequency is divided by a programmable N factor, and the frequency divided signal is compared in phase with a precise frequency reference (10kHz) derived from the crystal oscillator). The output of the phase detector is a current which charges or discharges the external CPUMP capacitor, so that the VCO frequency converges to the required frequency. The average charge current (when fVCO is quite different from the wanted frequency) is about 60µA. Consequently the tuning speed is about fVCO 10.5MHz/second (C41 = 10µF) t Important Remark : Due to its loop gain the frequency synthesizer has a ± 10kHz accuracy. STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 3 - APPLICATION NOTES (continued) The most severe case is : "narrow band stereo pair" when simultaneously are required a good quality sound and a precise control of the capture range (due to the low frequency spacing : 180kHz (80kHz dynamically). f) Dimensioning the External Components (DET, AMPLOCK, AGC, CPUMP Pins) Example : Left channel (see Figure 10). Figure 10 : Left Channel, FM Demodulator External Components AMPLOCK DET CPUMP C41 C38 R36 180k C37 C49 50k R33 R32 V REF - AMPLOCK, AGC Pins : Due to the AGC loop, the amplitude As of the wanted subcarrier at the phase detector input is inversely proportionnal to the external resistor connected to AMPPLOCK. 11k (As)PP DETH R36 In order to maintain the phase detector in a linear operation (even in case of a high number of subcarrier : 10 subcarriers), we recommand (As) not to exeed 0.25VPP 25VPP. For R36 = 560k, AsPP 0.19 VPP. The C49 capacitor associated with R36 realizes a filter which rejects all the AC components. For a good operation, the roll-off frequency of this filter is lower than the audio spectrum for C49 = 100nF, fC 2.8MHz. The value of the AGC capacitor C43 is not very critical, 100nF has been selected for component standardization. However it is recommanded to have C43 < 1µF for a good stability of the loop. - CPUMP Pin : Choosing the CPUMP capacitor value results from a compromisze. The smaller is CPUMP the shorter is the duration of the frequency synthesis, but a too small value of CPUMP induces a too fast response of the DC compensating loop (risk of distorsion in the low frequency audio signals). C41 = 10µF is a good compromise. - DET Pins : following is a simplified method to calculate the components. 50k 80k 50k FSB L AN838-11 AN838-11.EPS C43 AN838-10 AN838-10.EPS AGC Figure 11 : Stereo Pair, Frequency Spacing and Coverage 50k FSB R Theoretical request : L > 50kHz, C < 80kHz. Actually a more severe compromise is required. - L > 70kHz. A first margin is required to compensate the phase lag which appears in case of high frequency slew rates (case of audio sibilance). In practice, a further margin is given to compensate the dispersion of the phase detector gain, eventually : 90kHz L typ. 100kHz - C will be choosen as low as possible to also compensate potential level imbalance between left and right subcarriers (2 to 3dB max. could be measured on some broadcasted channels). The STV42/56 STV42/56 circuits have been optimized to get a 1VPP at the DET Pin (full deviation). Refering to realation (2) : K KO = 100kHz PP = 100kHz/V 1VPP choosing L = 100kHz in (1) : KD = L 1V/rd K KO using relation (0) : KD R36 180k, DETH DETH = 3.1V, R36 = 560k R33 = To calculate the other components C37, R32, would lead to complex mathematics. A first estimate can be done using the relations given in Annex 1. Some experiments and calculations have given R32 = 82k and C37 = 22pF, corresponding capture range is about 52kHz. An additionnal capacitor C38 is recommanded to give a further reduction to the capture range (C38 15 to 22pF). 11/37 STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 3 - APPLICATION NOTES (continued) 3.2.2 - Software Description To properly use the FM demodulators of the STV42/56 STV42/56, specific software routines need to be implemented. This section describes three software routines : - FM demodulation, - PLL monitoring, - PLL gain auto calibration. 1st Step (left) : SETTING THE DEMODULATION PARAMETERS A. The FM deviation is selected by loading R5 with the appropriate value (see Table 1). Table 1 : Register 5 (FM Deviation Selection) 4 3 2 1 0 Selected Nominal Carrier Modulation 220.127.116.11 - FM Demodulation Software Routine As far as the FM demodulation is concerned, there are two main cases : mono and stereo pair. In case of mono subcarriers, it is suggested to have both left and right demodulators demodulating the same wanted sub-carrier (in doing so, signals can be surely provided to the decoders). In case of stereo pair, naturally the two demodulators work on different subcarriers. Description (Flow Chart in Figure 12) With the STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 circuits, for each channel, three steps are required to acheive a FM demodulation : - 1st step :To set the demodulation parameters : · A : FM deviation selection, · B : Subcarrier frequency selection. - 2nd step : To implement a waiting loop to check the actual VCO frequency. - 3rd step :To close the demodulation phase locked loop (PLL). Refering to the FM demodulation block diagram (see Figure 8), the frequency synthesis block is common to both channels (left and right) ; consequently two complete sequences have to be done one after the other when demodulating stereo pairs. For clarity, the explanations are based on the followin g example : stereo pair 7. 02MHz/L 7.20MHz/R, deviation ±50kHz max. 12/37 Bit 5 = 1 Do not use 0 0 0 0 1 Do not use 0 0 0 1 0 Do not use 0 0 0 1 1 Remark : In this section some solutions are given, but the software engineer may improve them for his application. Bit 5 = 0 0 0 0 0 0 Cal. set. (2V) cal : do not use = 0.3373V offset on VCO cal : do not use = 0.3053V offset on VCO cal : do not use = 0.2763V offset on VCO calibration setting (1V offset on VCO) 296kHz modulation 267kHz modulation 242kHz 218kHz 198kHz 179kHz 161kHz 146kHz 133kHz 120kHz 109kHz 98.3kHz 89.7kHz 80.9kHz 73.1kHz 66.0kHz 60.0kHz 54.4kHz = default power up state 49.1kHz 44.3kHz 39.8kHz 35.9kHz 32.4kHz 29.1kHz 26.7kHz 24.3kHz 21.9kHz 19.7kHz 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 592kHz 534kHz 484kHz 436kHz 396kHz 358kHz 322kHz 292kHz 266kHz 240kHz 218kHz 196kHz 179kHz 161kHz 146kHz 122kHz 120kHz 109kHz 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 98kHz 89kHz 78kHz 71kHz 65kHz 58kHz 53kHz 48.6kHz 43.8kHz 39.6kHz Corresponding bandwidth can be calculated as follows : Bw 2 (FM deviation + audio bandwidth) Bw 2 (value given in table + audio bandwidth) In the example : ± 50kHz R5 Bits 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 X X 1 1 0 1 1 0 STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 3 - APPLICATION NOTES (continued) B. The subcarrier frequency is selected by launching a frequency synthesis (the VCO is driven to the wanted frequency). This operation requires two actions : - To connect the VCO to the frequency synthesis loop. Refering to the FM demodulator block diagram (see Figure 8) : · SW4 closed R6 B2 = H · SW3 to bias R6 B4 = L · SW2 to bias R6 B3 = L · SW1 opened R6 B5 = L - To load R7 and R6 B6 B7 with the value corresponding to the left channel frequency. This 10 bits value is calculated as follows : Subcarrier frequency = coded value x 10kHz (10kHz is the minimum step of the frequency synthesis function) Considering that the tunning range is comprised between 5 to 10MHz, the coded value is a number between 500 and 1000 (210 = 1024) then 10 bits are required. Example : 7.02MHz = 702 x 10kHz 702 1010 1111 10 AF + 10 R7 is loaded with AF and R6 B6 : L, R6 B7 : H. The Table 2 gives the setting for the most common subcarrier frequencies. After this sequence of 3 steps for left channel, a similar sequence is needed for the right channel. Note : In the sequence for the right, there is no need to again select the FM deviation (once is enough for the pair). General Remark Before to enable the demodulated signal to the audio output, it is recommanded to keep the audio muting and to check whether a subcarrier is present at the wanted frequency. Such an information is available in R8 B0 and R8 B4 which can be read. Table 2 : Frequency Synthesis Register Setting for the Most Common Subcarrier Frequencies Register 6 Subcarrier Frequency (MHz) Register 7 (Hex) Bit 7 Bit 6 5.58 8B 1 0 5.76 90 0 0 5.8 91 0 0 5.94 94 1 0 6.2 9B 0 0 6.3 9D 1 0 6.4 A0 0 0 2nd Step (left) : VCO Frequency Checking (VCO) This second step is actually a waiting loop in which the actual running frequency of the VCO is measured. To exit of this loop is allowed when : Subcarrier Frequency - 20kHz Measured Frequency Subcarrier Frequency + 20kHz (± 10kHz is the maximum dispersion of the frequency synthesis function). In practice, R8 B2 B3 and R9 are read and compared to the value loaded in R6 B6 B7 and R7 ±2 bits. 6.48 A2 0 0 6.5 A2 1 0 3rd Step (left) The FM demodulation can be started by connecting the VCO to the phase locked loop (PLL). In practice : - SW3 closed R6 B4 = H - SW4 opened R6 B2 = L 6.6 A5 0 0 6.65 A6 0 1 6.8 AA 0 0 6.85 AB 0 1 7.02 AF 1 0 7.20 B4 0 0 7.25 B5 0 1 7.38 B8 1 0 7.56 BD 0 0 7.74 C1 1 0 7.85 C4 0 1 7.92 C6 0 0 8.2 CD 0 0 8.65 D8 0 1 13/37 STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 3 - APPLICATION NOTES (continued) Figure 12 : FM Demodulation Software routine Flow Chart Relevant STV42/56 STV42/56 (W : Write, R : Read) Start Mute Audio Output W Reg 00 W Reg 05 B0-5 Lauch Frequency Synthesis (left) W W Reg 07 Reg 06 B2 B4 + Reg 06 B6-7 Watchdog (left) R Reg 09 + Reg 08 B2-3 Demodulation Start (PLL connected to AGC stage) R Reg 06 B2 B4 Lauch Frequency Synthesis (Right) R Reg 07 + Reg 03 B3 B5 + Reg 06 B6-7 R Reg 08 B0 R Reg 0A + Reg 08 B6-7 W Reg 06 B3 B5 R Reg 08 B4 W Reg 00 Select FM Deviation B 1st Step 2nd Step Note 3 fsb - 20kHz < fVCO < fsb + 20kHz No Yes 3rd Step Wait for tAL » 100ms Left Subcarrier Presence Note 4 C Yes Note 1 No A Note 2 Watchdog (right) Note 3 fsb - 20kHz < fVCO < fsb + 20kHz No Yes Demodulation Start (PLL connected to AGC stage) Right Subcarrier Presence Note 4 E Yes Stop Muting Note 1 No D Note 2 End Notes : 1. tAL must be longer than the setting time of the voltage at AMPLOCK Pins. tAL can be reduced by decreasing the AMPLOCK capacitor. 2. In points A and D different strategies may be adopted (up to the software engineer). Suggestion : to return to B point and to have a second trial. If this second trial is not successfull, to run till end ; in this case a randoom noise is output and the end user is warned about the subcarrier "abscence". 3. The frequency synthesis has a ± 10kHz accuracy. But in order to give some more margin ± 20kHz tolerance may be used (this tolerance remains lower than the capture range of the PLL). 4. In point C, two different strategies may be adapted : - either to keep muted the output till the MCU runs till E point, - or to output the left sound on both outputs untill the MCU runs to E point, and real stereo sound is output after E point. 14/37 AN838-12 AN838-12.EPS Wait for tAL » 100ms STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 3 - APPLICATION NOTES (continued) 18.104.22.168 - PPL Monitoring Software Routine During the demodulation, the VCO is locked on the wouted subcarrier frequency. If for any reason the subcarrier desappears (signal drop out, unreliable cable connection to the parabola .) the VCO is no larger locked on a fixed frequency, it may drift away and may lock on unwanted subcarriers when the RF signal appears again. To prevent the application from tese problems, it is recommanded to implement PLL monitoring routine. 22.214.171.124 - PLL Calibration Function a - Reason for the Calibration In order to have a good and stable quality of the sound, it is important to precisely control the PLL bandwidth (stable lock and capture ranges of the PLL). Refering to the general theory of the PLLs, the lock range can be calculated as following (also valid for the STV42/56 STV42/56 circuits) : L = KO K KD where : KO : the VCO slope (in rd/V or kHz/V), KD : the phase detector gain ( in V per Rd), K : a constant (in the case of STV42/56 STV42/56, this parameter is programmable in order to accomodate different FM deviations : Reg 5 B0-5). In the case of the STV42/56 STV42/56, most of the dispersions come from the KO (VCO slope), in theory dispersions as high as ± 30 to ± 40% could be expected. In order to compensate this problems the STV42/56 STV42/56 circuits feature many PLL gain positions (K factor). In order to find the optimum K factor (Reg 5 B0-5) there are two methods : Description To regularly and permanently check the VCO frequency (using) the watchdog). The sampling period may be in the range of 200ms to 500ms. When an error is detected, the demodulation is not imediatly stopped but an error counter is initialized. If at the next sampling of the watchdog, there is a new error, the error counter is incremented. The demodulation is stopped when the error counter reaches a fixed value (for instance 4 or 5). If one sampling of the watchdog gives a good esult before the error counter reaches the limit, the error counter is reset. Flow Chart This function has no real start sequence, because it permanently operates (see Figure 13). In Point A, it is suggested to restart the FM demodulation sequence. a.1 - To implement a test in the assembly line This test can be described as following : - A full deviation FM signal is input to the STV42/56 STV42/56 circuit. - The STV42/56 STV42/56 is set to demodulation. - The peak-to-peak signal is measured on the DET Pins or on the scart outputs (in this later case no de-emphasis and no noise reduction are preferable). - Then with either an automatic system or with the help of an operator, the optimum K parameter is selected to get a 1VPP signal on the DET Pins or 2VPP at the scart outputs. - The result of this test is memorized in the EEPROM of the receiver (remark : to save time the test can be done for only one deviation and its result can be used for all deviations accomodated by the receiver). Figure 13 : PLL Monitoring Routine : Flow Chart Wait for sampling period Watchdog Reset Error Counter Yes fS - 20kHz < fVCO < fS + 20kHz ? No Error Counter ¬ Error Counter + 1 Error Couter = Max.? A AN838-13 AN838-13.EPS No Yes (1) a.2 - To use the auto-calibration function of the STV42/56 STV42/56 circuits This second method will actually be a software routine which is embeded in the microcontroller software. This second method has two advantages : - no need for test in the assembly line (time saving, equipment saving), - the receiver can auto-calibrate during its life, then compensating drifts related to time and temperature. 15/37 STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 3 - APPLICATION NOTES (continued) b - Principle of the Auto-calibration Function (see Figures 14 and 15) The purpose of the auto-calibration function is to automatically measure the slope of the VCO of the PLL. This can be done with the STV42/56 STV42/56 circuits when using the following software routine : 1st step : To implement a synthesis to bring the 4th step : After a well known delay, the new VCO to a known frequency (Fo) frequency (Fe) reached by the VCO is (ex : 7.02MHz). m ea su re d wi t h t h e f re qu ency watchdog function. 2nd step : To u se a f re q ue n cy w at chd og Remark : The delay to be given must sequence to check whether the VCO be higher than sampling period of the has reached the wanted Fo frequency. watchdog (100ms). And since the 3rd step : To generate a well known voltage internal timing of the watchdog is not increase V in the drive of the VCO known, we think that the optimum delay (this function can be done with the is 200ms. autocalibration setting of the STV42/56 STV42/56 circuits (Reg 05 loaded with value 03 With all above steps, the VCO slope can be calcuor 23). Fe - Fo V = 1V for Reg 05 : 23 lated as follows : KO V V = 2V for Reg 05 : 03 Figure 14 : PLL Demodulator, Auto-calibration Function KD DET Pin SWA FM Dev. Select. A V REF D V I Leakage K VCO +1 KO CPUMP Pin SWA is opened during the auto-calibration D V = 1V or 2V AN838-14 AN838-14.EPS RF Signal V REF (bias) Figure 15 : Auto-calibration Timing, Diagram of the Potential Drifts Slope due to leakages e q 1 D f fo fE q 2 fe Ideally VCO Drive Voltage fe2 VCO Frequency 1st Step q 2nd Step 16/37 3rd Step (4th Step)1 (4th Step)2 Optional ³ 200ms : defined fE : required information 1 q 2 AN838-15 AN838-15.EPS D V STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 3 - APPLICATION NOTES (continued) c - How to Use the Results of the Auto-calibration Routine Let us keep in mind that the final objective is to get a PLL gain or a lock range as close as possible to its optimum value. Coming back to relation (1) : L = KOTyp. Ktable KD = KOact Kcorrected K KOTyp. Ktable KOact Kcorrected : is the VCO slope when there is no dispersion. : is the required coefficient (Reg 05 b0-5), when KO has no dispersion. : the actual measured value (with the auto-calibration). : the coefficient that will be set after the auto-calibration. How to select the optimum setting in the FM deviation table (Reg 05 B0-5) In the FM deviation table of the STV42/56 STV42/56 circuits, each step produces a 11% increase : KN+1/KN = 1.11 Consequenctly the maximum allowed dispersion of the slope KO before a correction is necessary, is the dispersion which respects the following relation : (1+ ) = (1 - ) 1.11 = 5.26% Repeting the same idea, it is possible to build a table of the required correction versus the dispersion of the VCO slope. Proposed table : In this table R is the ratio : KOact / KOTyp. RMin. -0.692 0.768 0.853 0.947 1.0526 1.168 1.297 1.44 R RMax. 0.692 0.768 0.853 0.947 1.0526 1.168 1.297 1.44 - Required correction -4 -3 -2 -1 No correction +1 +2 +3 +4 + 1 means : for a given deviation, + 1 is added to the typical value which is loaded in Reg 05 (example for ± 50kHz, typical value is 36h and the corrected value is 37h). Remark : In general the correction will not exceed ± 2. In practice In practice the microcontroller which are used in the satellite receivers seldom have advancd arithmetic processing functions (such as division). So, we propose to compare the actual result (Fe - Fo) to its expected typical value th. th = V KOTyp. V : 1V for Reg 05:23h and 2V for Reg 05:03h KOTyp. : 460kHz/V To select the corection to be implemented, a table similar to the above described one can be used. The selection range of this new table is : th RMin. Fe - FO th RMax. d - Additionnal Advices about the Auto-calibration Function d.1 - When to implement the auto-calibration function ? It is suggested to implement the auto-calibration function when the end-user turns-off the satellite receiver (remote control command or front panel command). This position of the auto-calibration function offers two advantages : - The receiver is auto-calibrated when the part is already warmed-up. In this way potential drift related to temperature are taken into account. - The auto-calibration is done when the end-user no longer wishes to use the receiver, consequently the duration of the auto-calibration routine (about 1s) is no longer an inconvenience. d.2 - To minimize the errors coming from voltage offsets There are two settings of Reg 05, 03 and 23 which can be used for the auto-calibration, but in preactice we suggest to use Reg 05 : 03 because it produces a higher voltage increase in the VCO drive. In such a case the offset voltages have relatively less influence. d.3 - Compensation of the drifts appearing on CPUMP (see Figure 15) To be efficient, the auto-calibration routine must be as precise as possible. For this reason we would suggest to compensate some errors which may happen during the autocalibration routine. More precisely, it has been noticed that small leakage currents produce a drift of the CPUMP voltage which also drives the VCO. Consequently, because of the required delay between the 3rd and 4th steps of the auto-calibration routine, a small error may be induced in the drive voltage of the VCO. Suggestion : To repeat twice the 4th step (frequency watchdog). The first time about 200ms after the 3rd step. The second time after a well known duration after the first time. Assuming that the drift is linear, it is possible to correct the first reading. Additionnaly to minimize the leakage currents which would induce a drift of the CPUMPvoltage, it is suggested not to connect the PLL circuit to the incoming RF signal, but to keep the phase detector input to bias (ex: if left channel is calibrated Reg 06 B2 = L and Reg 06 B4 = L). 17/37 STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 3 - APPLICATION NOTES (continued) e - Suggested Flow Chart Following is a suggestion which has not been tested in SGS-THOMSON laboratory yet. 3.3 - Audio Processing Figure 16 : Auto-Calibration Flow Chart The main functions of the audio processing part are : - the audio noise reduction system (ANRS), - the audio de-emphasis, - the volume control with the mono stereo switch, - a switching array, - input/output buffers. Figure 17 and Figure 18 give the architecture of the audio processing part of the STV42/56 STV42/56 circuits. Start Synthesis VCO ¬ fO 3.3.1 - Audio Noise Reduction (ANRS) N About the ANRS, there is a main difference between the STV0042 STV0042 and the STV0056 STV0056. fVCO = fO ± 20kHz D V on VCO (auto-calibration) Reg 05 ¬ Reg 06 ¬ In the STV0042 STV0042, the input signal of the ANRS is the sum of left and right (L + R) (see Figure 19). Wh e re a s, t he STV 00 5 6 h as t w o ind ependant ANRS (one for left and one for right) (see Figure 20). For this reason, it is recommanded to use STV0056 STV0056 when "Panda" qualification is targeted. 03 00 Wait for q 1 (ideally 200ms) Additionnally, as far as the ANRS input is concerned, the STV0056 STV0056 offers two options (K4) ; either the decoder return or the FM demodulator output. The decoder return has been implemented provisionnaly, but so far, the second output is required : FM demodulator output. Read watchdog fe Wait for q 126.96.36.199 - Principle 2 The basic idea of the ANRS is to controlled the bandwidth of the output gm amplifier versus the amplitude of the demodulated audio signal coming from the FM demodulator. Read watchdog fe2 Calculate fE from fe and fe2 Calculate Correction END 18/37 AN838-16 AN838-16.EPS Save results in EEPROM To do so, the ANRS implements three main functions : - An external band pass filter which rejects the undesired signal components which remains at the output of the FM demodulator. - The filtered signal is rectified, so that the DC voltage at Pin PKOUT is an image of the audio signal amplitude. More precisely : (VPKOUT - VREF) = k . A = control signal with K = proportionnality coefficient and A = amplitude of the audio signal - The output stage is an amplifier whose transconductance is a function of the control signal gm = f(control) = f ( K . A ) STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 3 - APPLICATION NOTES (continued) Figure 17 : STV0042 STV0042 Audio Processing Block Diagram (Channel Left) STV0042 STV0042 a K2 a ANRS AUDIO DEEMPHASIS a K1 b c MONO STEREO b K3 AUDIO L 5 b c K5 FC R U75 L 7 VOL L SUM OUT PLL FILTER 9 S2 OUT L 29 FC L 1 41 S2 RTN L 3 PK IN 18 40 2 DET L 28 6dB PK OUT -6dB AN838-17 AN838-17.EPS TV DECODER OR VCR Figure 18 : STV0056 STV0056 Audio Processing Block Diagram (Channel Left) STV0056 STV0056 a K2 b ANRS AUDIO L c MONO STEREO 4 a b c K5 K6 6dB 6dB 21 10 VOL L 12 S2 OUT L 40 U75 L FC L LEVEL L PK IN L 32 Audio Decoder Return DECODER VCR AN838-18 AN838-18.EPS Audio Decoder Out -6dB 52 54 53 55 PK OUT L 24 S3 RTN L S3 OUT L DET L PLL FILTER 27 J17 L -6dB 39 K1 b K3 K4 b a AUDIO DEEMPHASIS c S2 RTN L a b c a a b TV 19/37 STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 3 - APPLICATION NOTES (continued) Figure 19 : STV0042 STV0042 ANRS Block Diagram STV0042 STV0042 FM Demo Right FM Demo Left L To Audio De-emphasis R Rectifier 5kW -6dB gm gm Control SUM OUT PKIN PKOUT FCL FCR C65 C58 R60 R58 R53 C66 R51 C64 R59 C63 C60 R57 AN838-19 AN838-19.EPS V REF BPF BPF : Band Pass Filter Figure 20 : STV0056 STV0056 ANRS Block Diagram STV0056 STV0056 FM Demo Left L Rectifier To Audio De-emphasis gm 5kW Control LEVEL L PKIN L PKOUT L FCL C115 C112 R60 R53 C66 R113 C60 BPF V REF BPF : Band Pass Filter 20/37 AN838-20 AN838-20.EPS R117 STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 3 - APPLICATION NOTES (continued) 188.8.131.52 - Dimensioning the External Components a) The Band Pass Filter : BPF The output signal of the FM demodulator contains different components : - The desired demodulated signal, - beat signal of the unwanted subcarriers with the VCO frequency, - beat signal of the attenuated video with the VCO frequency (attenuated video : the input filter C25, R18, R17, L4, C24 does not totally reject the video). The amplitude of the beat signals cannot be neglected when the desired audio signal has low amplitudes. Consequently, it is necessary to filter the signal before the rectifier. For a better efficiency a 12dB/octave filter (order 2) is prefered. The suggested solution (Figure 21) is a simple, low-cost, active filter (using a Sallen and Key structure). Main characteristics : ZIN few k, ZO 100, Bandwidth 15kHz, Attenuation at 80kHz 25dB, Peaking 1.3dB A small peaking has been prefered to provide a small correction of the frequency response of the complete ANRS. b) Input and Output Circuitry of the Rectifier (R117, C115, C112, R113) C115 is necessary because the rectifier requires a capacitive coupling with the BPF. C115 value is not critical (C 220nF). R117 value combined with an internal 68k resistor, gives the gain of the rectifier : (VPKOUT - VREF) = K A 68k with K - R117 C112 : Combined with an internal 5k resistor, the C112 capacitor produces a time constant which is optimized in order to have the lowest overshoot as possible on the rising edge of the 2Hz/4 ÷ 1 burst pattern used in the PANDA qualification. Once C112 is fixed, R113 is choosen to produce a delay time constant which compensates the envelop appearing at the beginning of the low amplitude session of the 2Hz/4 ÷ 1 burst pattern used in the PANDA qualification. Good compromise with R113 = 560k. Remark : The Rectifier is not a full wave one, it works with negative halfwaves. Figure 21 : Example of Simple Band Pass Filter LEVEL 12V R114 R116 C114 To R117 AN838-21 AN838-21.EPS / AN838-21 AN838-21.TIF R115 Q103 C113 21/37 STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 3 - APPLICATION NOTES (continued) c) Load of the Output Amplifiers (R60, C66, R53, C60) Looking at more in details, the output amplifier can be described as given in Figure 22. qualification (PPL : standing for peak program level which is equivalent to full deviation ± 50kHz) In summary : R53 C60 75µs R53 and R117 optimized to get flat frequency response with (PPL-18dB) and (PPL-28dB). Figure 22 : ANRS Output Amplifier Structure Control To Audio De-emphasis From FM Demodulator gm R53 C66 VO C60 ZL with such a structure : VO - gm ZL = VI 1 + gm ZL AN838-22 AN838-22.EPS R60 x1 VI (1) 184.108.40.206 - Results with PANDA Encoder Refering to the STV0056 STV0056 specification. a) Distorsion is lower than 1% at PPL b) Crosstalk is typically lower than 60dB in stereo at 1kHz c) Signal to noise ratio unweighted (output level : 0.77VRMS 77VRMS) S/N = 67dB typ. S/N 74dB typ. (with 400HzHPF) d) Frequency Response at (PPL - 18dB) and (PPL - 28dB) (see Figure 24) e) Compander Gain Tracking In order to simplify the calculations, it can be noticed that the R60 C66 filter only operates at very low frequencies, and assuming that R60 >> R53, the impedance ZL can be reduced to (R53 + C60). With such assumptions R53 C60 p + 1 VO = VI 1 R53 + gm C60 p + 1 p : Laplace operator (p = j2f in the frequency field) gm = f(control) Input Level PPL PPL - 10dB PPL - 20dB PPL - 30dB PPL - 40dB PPL - 50dB PPL - 60dB Conclusion : The output stage of the ANRS behaves as a filter having a fixed zero and a variable pole (depending on the audio level) (see Figure 23). Figure 23 : ANRS Output Amplifier, General Frequency Response Figure 24 : (zero) 1 2p R53 . C60 Vo / V i R60 C66 Filter : Without this filter, when the audio signal is very low (VPKOUT VREF) or when there is no signal, the 1/gm value reaches very high values (several M) ; under those conditions the FC Pins have a very impedance and become a noise pick-up. With the R60 C66 filter, the maximum impedance which can be reached by the FC Pins is clipped to the value of R60 ; the S/N ratio is greatly improved. C66 is not actual (C66 10nF). 400Hz 18dB 11.4dB 0 -11.1dB -20dB -29.4dB -37dB 10kHz 16dB 8.4dB 0 -8.8dB -17.8dB -27.4dB -36dB Limits 23/17dB 23/17dB Reference -13/-7dB -23/-17dB -34/-26dB -47/-33dB : PPL - 18dB . : PPL - 28dB 2p C60 ( R53 + (pole) 1 ) gm The ANRS is used in combination with the 75µs de-emphasis ; consequently the (zero) frequency is choosen to compensate the de-emphasis R53 C60 75µs The value of R53 is optimized in order to get the flatest frequency response as possible at levels (PPL - 18dB) and (PPL - 28dB) of the PANDA 22/37 AN838-24 AN838-24.TIF 1 AN838-23 AN838-23.EPS f STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 3 - APPLICATION NOTES (continued) R106 34.7k R106 = 36k 3.3.2 - Audio De-emphasis The audio de-emphasis functions are simply realized with transconductance amplifiers loaded by external loads whose impedance follow the required de-emphasis laws (see Figure 25). With such structures : As far as AC characteristics are concerned : 1 477Hz 1) Due to the zero of the J17 law, the high frequency signals contained in the input signal are not completely attenuated. This explains why the beat frequency produced inside the PLL section remains present at the scart output when J17 is selected. If the user prefers to give a further attenuate to the high frequency signals, optionnally COP can be used (COPT is choosen to produce a additional pole at about 20kHz). In theory COPT 1.9nF (1.5nF can be also selected for standardization of values). 2) Under certain conditions it is possible to implement both J17 and 50/75µs w it h STV0042 STV0042 (please refer to "Application options" Chapter 4.2). = 0.5 VRMS 1.41 VPP VO17 DC = gm R106 VI 10.8k 1 Remark about J17 The DC gain of the J17 de-emphasis is dimensionned in order to comply with the scart recommandations : VOUT scart = 1VRMS 3dB at full deviation. Taking into account the 6dB gain of the scart drivers. with gm = 2 ( R106 + R107 ) Cp (pole of the J17 curve) Combining (2) (3) (4) : R107 = 4.69k R107 = 4.7k C108 = 8.19nF C108 = 8.2nF VO17 R107 C108 p + 1 = R106 + R107 C108 p + 1 VI p : Laplace operator (p = j2f in the frequency field) 2 4135Hz 2 R107 C108 (zero of the J17 curve) (4) 220.127.116.11 - Dimensioning the External Components a) J7 De-emphasis (STV0056 STV0056 only) Using relation (1) : VOUT scart 1 (3) VOUT = VIN gm ZL (1) ZL : Output Impedance (external circuit) VO17 = (2) (integrated characteristics) VI = 0.44 VPP (at low frequencies of a J17 preemphazed signal) Figure 25 : Audio De-emphasis Solution From Switch K3 To Switch K2 Ra J17 50/75m s gm gm Rb Rint V ia SW1 SW0 V REF V REF U75L J17L C108 Copt R106 C39 R107 V 017 R34 V 075 or V 050 AN838-25 AN838-25.EPS Vi Rb » 0.66 Ra + Rb V REF 23/37 STV0042/STV0056 STV0042/STV0056 APPLICATION NOTE 3 - APPLICATION NOTES (continued) c) 50µs De-emphasis When 50µs de-emphasis is selected, SW1 is opened and SW0 closed. The load of the de-emphasis amplifier corresponds to the external filter in parallel with an internal resistor RIN. This configuration would give a lower DC gain, but in compensation the input signal is not attenuated (SW1 : opened). Remark : In theory Rint value should be equal to 2 x R34. This not the case. This imperfection of the circuit will be corrected in a version which will be launched lately (STV0056A STV0056A). d) General Remark about the Audio De-emphasis When the audio de-emphasis Pins are not used, it is required to directly connect them to VREF. 3.3.3 - Volume Control, Mono Stereo Switch Most of the informations relevant to the volume stage are given in the specification. The mono/stereo switch allows to output on the volume controlled stage either the stereo signal or twice left or twice right. Remark : The mono/stereo switch is only available on volume outputs. In case of multilingual channels it is preferable to set the two FM demodulators on the same subcarrier, so that there is no problem for the other outputs : S2 and S3. 24/37 3.3.4 - Switching Array The STV42/56 STV42/56 circuits offer many switching configurations, please refer to the specification for details. 3.3.5 - Input/Output Buffers a) The input buffers (S2RTN, S3RTN Pins) have two important characteristics : - the input impedance is 25k typically, - a 6dB attenuation : allowing to accept signals as high as 2VRMS. b) The output buffers (S2OUT, S3OUT Pins) have the following characteristics : - 6dB gain : in order to have a 1VRMS output signal at full deviation, - can be set to high impedance, this feature is interesting for twin tuner applications, - output impedance ZOUT is about 60 (in active mode). Remark : Under certain conditions, this rather low impedance (60 Typ.), allows to realize the (L + R) function (required to drive the RF modulators) by simpling using two resistors without inducing high level of crosstalk (see Figure 26). The crosstalk level can be calculated as Ctk = V2 with V3 = 0 V1 assuming ZOUT